Elements of Interior Design


Line denotes movement,
because the eyes travel along the lines. It can also be combined to create
shapes, planes and forms. It is used to create width and height, based on the
appearance of activity, movement and flow.

Horizontal Lines – 

Lines applied horizontally evoke
feelings of width, stability, grounding and direction. Small rooms can gain some
advantage from the use of these details to help make them appear wider than
they really are. Although, the use of strong horizontal lines tends to create
width and helps to direct the viewer to a particular focal point, it also makes
the ceiling of the space look lower than it actually is.



Lines applied vertically denote strength, elevation, stability, and
balance. The use of vertical lines gives an illusion of height. If you have
noticed, the curtains, doorways, windows are preferable tall with strong
vertical lines, contributing in the feeling of height in a space




– Lines applied diagonally have a
typical sense of dynamic movement and transformation.  This type of line
can direct the eyes upward or downward, and adds volume to the space. The Dog
legged staircase is an example of diagonal lines used in Architectural





 Curved lines can either be free
flowing, arched, elliptical, or circular. Curved lines help the space have a flow,
which makes it playful and soothing to the eye. Curved Lines can be seen in
arched Doorways Windows, and Furniture.





Shapes are
two dimensional, i.e.; they have a specific height and width but no depth. In
interior Design, shapes can be used to add interest, style and theme to a
design. It can be incorporated in furniture, architectural features, artworks
and many more. Use of a specific shape can help in deriving repetition in the
design, which creates visual balance in the space.

Shapes like
Circles, Triangle, and Square, rectangles, hexagons and many other geometric
shapes can be seen in architecture and furniture designs.






Leaves, flowers, seashells, star shape are organic shapes. These shapes are
derived from nature and are free- flowing, which possess irregular and informal



Space speaks to the physical boundaries of a room.  It speaks for the
floors, walls, ceiling, doors and windows as well, and is not based on basic
square footage.

Space gives you limits, of what all can be placed in a room. It is
closely associated with ergonomics and anthropology of human beings and
furniture, so as to know how much space is needed for a sofa, and how much space
one would need for movement around it.

Space planning is essential tool to be mastered by a professional practicing
interior designing, hence the scope for people making space saving furniture
like wall hung beds, sofa cum beds, or a dining table that opens out to make
room for more people.A well planned space is a combination of both, function and design.Color, Lighting and Furniture design and arrangement play a key role in
defining a space, to be perceived as a small or large room


Wall shelf
by Japanese designer Keiji Ashizawa. This wall shelf, designed by Japanese
designer, Keiji Ashizawa, is a sleek but functional space saving furniture.




Now that’s a
smart way of having a side table, when you don’t have enough space for the traditional



Form can be explained in terms of the shape of furniture, objects or the space
itself. Good form is achieved when the proportions and scales of a room complement
each other.

advised, the use of many differing forms in one room can be confusing, and
won’t bring out the theme as a design.





The element of texture defines the feel or appearance of an object.
Everything from fabric, furniture, walls, flooring to decorative
accessories bring different textures into a space. Texture adds depth and
interest. It can refer to rough or smooth finishes, glossy or matte surfaces,
soft or rough finishes.




Textures can
be added by using rugs, or stoned flooring, wallpapers, velvet fabric chairs,
or textures paints on walls etc.





Color is the key element of interior design. It is used to create aesthetically
pleasing combinations and also works on a psychological level. It can affect
the mood and the feel of a room. Color, if used appropriately, can change the
perception of how big or small a room is.

Colors can
literally transform a space by creating specific moods and looks. Using cool
and neutral colors, the space conveys a sense of serenity. Rich jewel tones
make a space luxurious . Incorporating reds, oranges and yellows into a room
add a sense of warmth.

color scheme – 

In this type
of scheme, darker shades, grayer tones, and tints of the main color may be
included in the palette. However, one color is often paired with white or
another neutral.


For example,
a monochromatic room in red might use single shade of red
paired with white. Yet it might also include dark red upholstery fabric, pale
red walls, medium red draperies, and a patterned area rug that includes both
red and white. The window and door trim as well as the ceiling might be painted
in white.

color scheme –

directly across from each other on the color wheel are called complementary

Orange and blue,
Yellow and violet, Red and green are complementary colors. Complementary colors
used together provide extreme contrast.



The element of pattern is closely associated with color.Patterns are
created by using repetitive designs in fabrics,rugs, paint techniques
and wallpaper.

Pattern can be determined by the scale and density of the design. Combining designs of
different scale and density enable you to make a space visually interesting and

patterns – 

It consists
of stripes, checkers, and spiral designs etc. vertical stripes however gives a
sense of height to a room, the horizontal striped pattern would make the room
look wider. The spiral design will give a focal point to the room, at its




patterns –

It consists
of  flowers, plants and animal prints. Floral prints are usually
found on rugs, curtains, bedspreads and wallpapers.




pattern –
It consists of repetition of an abstract pattern, or a particular design which
relates to the logo, or relates to the design theme.





Lighting can really create the mood and ambiance of a room as well as change
the way colors and textures can be seen.  Lighting includes natural light
and  artificial light.

There are 3
main types of artificial lighting and they are task lighting, accent lighting
and mood lighting.  These are all very important in helping to create a
certain feel, mood and style in particular rooms.






 Mood lighting


Furniture Friday: EGG™ Lounge Chair


Image Credit : Scandinavia Design

EGG™ Lounge Chair

A reclining chair designed by Arne Jacobsen, and manufactured by Fritz Hansen in 1958,for Radisson SAS hotel in Copenhagen, Denmark.


The egg series also consists of a foot stool that complements the chair.
Both upholstered in fabric or leather on a steel frame is limited editions, due to the difficulty in making them.

egg chair - frtiz hansen.jpg
Image Credit : Fritz  Hansen


Image Credit: Alice Rawsthon

The  Egg chair is also been used in one of the McDonald outlets
in London, and at the boarding  area of San Francisco International Airport.



Image Credit: Scandinavia Design


Furniture Friday – The Barcelona Chair

Barcelona chair in a reading room/space https://emfurn.com:
Image Credit: VKV Visuals
Barcelona Chair cognac - Ludwig Mies van der Rohe:
Image Credit: Furnpact


Designed by German Designers Mies Van Der Rohe and Lilly Reich in 1929.

Image Credit : Knoll 
It is is made up of a Bovine Leather supported on a steel frame.



  • Upholstered with 40 individual panels. Individual panels are cut, hand-welted, and hand-tufted with leather buttons produced from a single cowhide. Cushions are premium quality, highly resilient urethane foam with down-like dacron polyester fiberfill
  • Upholstery straps are cowhide belting leather. Sides are dyed to match specified upholstery color. 17 straps are used for cushion support
  • Frame is polished chrome hand-ground and hand-buffed to a mirror finish. Upholstery straps attached with aluminum rivets
  • The KnollStudio logo and signature of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe are stamped into the leg
  • GREENGUARD Indoor Air Quality Certified®
    Barcelona® Chair
    Image Credit: Knoll

5 Low Maintenance Houseplants.


Pot Medium - Chevron Black.:
Image Credit: TheThirdRow

Best suited for bedrooms and bathrooms, these plants can survive in humid conditions and requires minimal light to grow. It’s known for improving air quality, and for producing oxygen in the night. This beautiful yellow bordered leaf plant is easy to grow and requires very low – maintenance.

However, it’s said that it isn’t a very animal friendly plant, hence will have
to be kept away from the reach of them.

Care: Water this plant every alternate day, while giving it adequate indirect sunlight.


Once Upon A Tea Time.... Design Stories: Loving your home: Sigappi Annamalai in Coimbatore, India:
Image Credit: Collectivitea

Money Plant, which is usually known for giving good luck and prosperity,
can grow really well in low – light and humid conditions. It is recommended for
the Bedroom, Living Room and the Toilets as well. This plant really does bring
some life in the space. One can hang it in pots in the balcony, or pot it in a
wine bottle keeping the stems in water.

If planted n water, spray the leaves with water, once a week.If planted in soil, water the plant twice a week.Remember, if the leaves start to turn yellow it needs more indirect sunlight.


Growing Lucky Bamboo:
Image Credit: Houseplants.about

It is widely known as a plant that brings good luck and fortune

according to feng shui. The Bamboo plant also purifies the air, thus improving
the air quality to a greater extent. Recommended for Bedrooms and Livings
Rooms, this plant can be grown in soil as well as water.

Indirect Sunlight works best.To be watered only with distilled or boiled water.



DIY “Tea Bag” Plant Label ♥ 1. Find a large mug, and put your plant in place. 2. Staple a small strand of twine/string between a small folded rectangle. Label one side with your plant’s name, and the...:
Image Credit: Roselia-gardens


Being themost famous succulent type, Aloe Vera is known for its beauty benefits. All

though it looks beautiful in your balcony, i would prefer the kitchen window
for this beauty

It needs bright light, and not direct sunlight.It doesn’t need a lot of watering, although the soil should be kept moist.Keep a mental note – of not watering it too much , and allow the water to be



La Dracaena reflexa Song of India est une variété panachée, très populaire, de Dracaena de Malaisie. Les feuilles ont généralement des zones centrales vertes, entourées de jaune des deux côtés. Plus feuillue que la plupart des Dracaena, elle a tendance à former un arbuste buissonnant et ligneux d'1,20 m. Gardez cette plante dans une pièce lumineuse hors du chemin de toute lumière directe du soleil pour qu'elle prospère. Son habitat naturel est le sol de la jungle, où toute...:
Image Credit: Jardenetmaison

Best for
removing indoor toxins, this plant having evergreen leaves and thick irregular
stems is an ornamental houseplant. It needs very less water, and over –
watering it would in fact lead to rotting.
Bright indirect sunlight.
Over-watering can kill these plants, keep the soil moist but don’t water log it.




Function  implies on the usability of the space or the furniture. A good design is more functional than it is  more lavish and eye pleasing.  To determine  the function, one needs to think of , as in how exactly is the space going to  be used.
For example, if we have to design a bedroom,   we first need to list down the functions happening in the bedroom, with regards to whose bedroom  it is, like is it a girls bedroom?  Do we need a jewelry closet too, or maybe a kid’s room, do we need to make the room childproof?
We also need to take care of the furniture designs and their sizes  like  the closet, the storage, the workspaces and the bed accordingly. If the closet would require a safe, or a tie hanger if it’s a boy’s room and the list goes on. Based on this, we can analyze how much space we have, and prioritize our space requirements and fit them in order.

Designing a space is more than just making it look really good, it’s about making a room work for you, to fulfill your needs. We need to take care of the furniture, the space planning and the lighting too. Now lighting would mean deciding if we need a task light at the workspace, or a lampshade near the bedside table. In order to design a space that functions, it’s important to know one’s wants and one’s needs and prioritize them.

But prioritizing doesn’t just mean cutting stuff out of your list because it doesn’t fit in the room. we simply need to make multi functional  and space saving furniture and think creatively.
For instance, if this happens to be a  small bedroom, we need to make a storage bed, so as to fit in the extra clothes or books, or maybe have a sofa cum bed, or a wall hung bed just to have that extra moving space.


Unity helps in conveying the design concept more effectively. Unity  in a design not only compliments the theme and concept, but also helps in serving the functional purpose of design.
It helps us giving reasons to every design process, by asking why are we using a particular object? Does it justify the theme or are we just placing that Aztec print pillow cover, just because it looks nice.
Unity can be of two types.
Visual unity –  a group of design components  all  directly focusing on a common concept…
For eg –   a repetitive use of the logo, promotes branding of the company, and creates a visual unity, in the design.
Conceptual unity –  a group of elements that indirectly imply the same concept.
For eg –  the use of the colors in the logo as the color scheme for the space, will create an indirect implication of unity in the space.
Unity helps in avoiding mixed signals, and gives a unified space, which conveys the design concept not only effectively, but also helps the space to look like a whole  and not a group of individual eye pleasing spaces.
Unity in a design can be achieved by contrast, alignment, repetition and proximity. While contrast adds variety, repetition helps in relativity of the space.  When all elements are focused on a common design concept, it helps to bring about a unified designed space.

Harmony is closely related to Unity. Harmony in a design helps in achieving a unified message. It  contains enough unity to make sense, but varied enough to be interesting.  Harmony is created when the design is coordinated to express one theme and concept.

However, in this process, everything doesn’t have to be the same. For Instance, its not necessary to use the same color to achieve that unified message, one can use a green color along with the brown color, to explain the earthy theme in a design.

Color Schemes help in creating that unity in a space, without much hassle. This explains, that the elements should not necessarily be of the same color, size and texture to achieve harmony, but it should co – relate and tell us a story, make sense, compliment each other  and not look out of place.One must plan and give it a thought to every design process, in terms of co-relation.
For example –  If the flooring is not too loud, for the undertone walls? or If the ceiling design and the furniture layout co-ordinate? Little things like the  style of the furniture and the  light fittings also play an important role in creating harmony, because of course  a  vintage  wooden sofa, with a modern steel and glass side table  does not express one theme or design style.

Rhythm can be defined as an organized movement. Its all about visual pattern that is expressed with Repetition, Progression,  and Contrast.  Rhythm in an interior spaces, helps in achieving order, focus and and interest, that helps lead your eye from one space to another.
Repetition –
Repetition is probably the easiest way to achieve rhythm. One element is repeated more then once in a space. For Instance, that element can be a particular pattern, color, texture or shape.
However, it all depends on how well does one repeat the elements, and in what manner.
For instance, If a space is all white, except  for  the   reception table, sofa and accessories like a vase, or a sculpture is in a bold color like red or blue.  The repetition of the color,  will create rhythm in the space, by leading the eye to all the elements in bold color,
Repetition can also be created by repeating two or more elements in a particular pattern.
Progression –
Progression can be attained by implementing gradation. Gradation can be done in  size or in color. One can use the red color in different elements while changing the gradation in color, which creates interest in an interior space.
Contrast –
Contrast however is using elements which are contrast or opposite to each other.. Like a rectangle table, with  circular o curvy pendant lights hanging above…..or a contrast in colors For instance, the yellow and blue.
Contrast usually helps to bring the space life, and helps you keep in interest and variety.


Emphasis can be achieved by creating a focal point in the designed space.  While all other elements are placed in order to lead the eye to the focal point, A focal point is the center of attraction in the room. However, a focal point should be visually important enough in order to draw attention to it. Emphasis can be anything from Picture frames, Headboards, Beds to Doors, Ceiling, Windows etc. Emphasis not only make the space interesting but also help in hiding the weaker points in the space.
For Instance – If we have a dead passage leading nowhere straight, we can create a Wall of Fame, at the end of the passage, and emphasize it even more by using a different paint shade. The Wall of Fame, will create interest in the dead passage, by being the focal point of the passage area.
Emphasis are mainly of Two types:
Architectural Emphasis –
Emphasis of this kind, is usually about letting the room speak for itself. Architectural features in a space, like its Columns, Beams, Ceiling, Walls, Doors, Windows, Fireplace etc can be the focal point of the space.  Dome Ceilings, Arched Doorways, or Symmetrical Columns create great focal points in a given space.
For Instance, one can enhance the beauty of the Columns, by stone cladding it, or giving a particular paint shade to all the columns. By making the architectural features the center of attraction of the space, Architectural Emphasis can easily be achieved.
Object Emphasis –
This kind of Emphasis, is usually about making the design flexible enough for years to come. Its a lot easier to change a sofa, or a painting or a  TV Unit, than to change the position or shape of your columns, or your doors and windows. Ofcourse, one wouldn’t choose such kind of emphasis, if we already have great architectural features. Since, Architectural features are not found in every space.
Object emphasis could be a large painting on the wall, or a beautiful sculpture or a 1970’s dresser.  It all depends on how you create that contrast, how does your focal point stand out.
However, a combination of both in the right amount, makes the space interesting and eye pleasing.
Scale is the most important principle of design, since it  defines the function ability of a given space. Scale is considered, with respect to the anthropology of humans. The Computer desk or the chair your sitting on, are all made as per human scale. Everything from the doorways, the ceiling height,  wardrobes depth and height, the sofa in your living room, are all made with consideration to the anthropology of humans.
For Instance, imagine your dining table at a higher level than the existing height. It will make it too difficult for you to eat food on it. You will need a higher chair, which you wont be able to sit comfortably either OR if your wardrobe, had a lesser depth than the standard size, you wouldn’t be able to hang any clothes.This is how important the principle of scale is in interior designing. It is nice to have an aesthetically good  design, but its even more important to have  a functional design.Because, what is the use of that good looking sofa anyway , if you cant really feel comfortable sitting on it.
Similarly, Furniture for a kid,  is made as per the anthropology of a child of that age. That is the reason, a kindergarten bench is smaller than the bench at a high school.
Scale is closely related to Proportion of a room as well. If Scale is measured by the dimensions of a particular object as per the standard sizes, Proportion is the comparison of two objects as per their size, and if they relate to each other.
Although to further understand the difference between the two –
A small room, with an over sized L – shaped sofa, will look out of scale.
But a room, with an over – sized L shape sofa, and a very sleek small side table will look out of proportion.
However, playing with the scale and proportion of the room in the right amount and correct way, helps in creating a  desired focal point in a given space. A designer with a good understanding of scale and proportion, is often named as a person, with a good eye of design, since not many people manage to get the scale and proportion right..

Balance in Interior Design refers to equalizing visual weight in a space. balance can be created  with the help of color, size, shapes texture and patterns.
Balance can be achieved in three ways –
Symmetrical, Asymmetrical and Radical Balance.
1. Symmetrical Balance –
Usually found in traditional interiors, where the visual weight is equally split on both sides.
For instance, similar looking chairs on both sides of a coffee table.
Symmetry creates a feeling of stability, however, which could be dull and repetitive. Symmetry can be easily achieved by arrangement of furniture, pattern or color.
2. Asymmetrical Balance –
Unlike symmetrical balance, this type of balance doesn’t necessarily need to be equally split on both sides. For instance, A Sofa paired with two upholstered chairs.
Asymmetry creates interest, and usually used in modern interiors.
However, this is fairly difficult to achieve, but tends to bring out the space as more dynamic and gives a more casual feel to the space.
3. Radial Balance –
Visual Weight that is achieved by creating a focal point in the center directing inwards on outwards can help achieve Radial Balance in a given space.
For instance, A round dining table with chairs around it, or a spiral staircase  are few of the examples.